National anthem of Ireland
|Also known as||"A Soldier's Song" (original)|
|Lyrics||Peadar Kearney, 1909 (English version)|
Liam Ó Rinn, 1923 (Irish version)
|Music||Patrick Heeney, 1910|
|Adopted||12 July 1926|
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version
"Amhrán na bhFiann" (Irish pronunciation: [ˈəuɾˠaːn̪ˠ n̪ˠə ˈvʲiən̪ˠ]), called "The Soldier's Song" in English, is the national anthem of Republic of Ireland. The music was composed by Peadar Kearney and Patrick Heeney, the original English lyrics by Kearney, and the Irish-language translation, now usually the version heard, by Liam Ó Rinn. The song has three verses, but only the choral refrain is used as the national anthem.
The song, as "A Soldier's Song", was composed "early in 1910 or late in 1909",[n 1] with words by Peadar Kearney, and music by his childhood friend and neighbour Patrick Heeney, who had collaborated on songs since 1903. Kearney assisted Heeney in setting the refrain. Heeney composed it with his melodeon. Seán Rogan, later of the Irish Citizen Army, may also have helped with the music, and first wrote it in musical notation. Kearney wrote much of the text in the Swiss Café at the corner of O'Connell Street and North Earl Street. The first draft of the text, handwritten on copybook paper, sold at auction in Dublin in 2006 for €760,000. After being rejected by The United Irishman, Bulmer Hobson's magazine Irish Freedom published the text in 1912. Whelan and Son of Ormond Quay, Dublin, published the lyrics for sale as a flysheet. It was used as a marching song by the Irish Volunteers and Seamus Hughes first sang it in public at a Volunteer fundraising concert. It was sung by rebels in the General Post Office (GPO) during the Easter Rising of 1916. Its popularity increased among rebels held in Frongoch internment camp after the Rising.
The sheet music was first published in late 1916 by Whelan and Son, in an arrangement by Cathal Mac Dubhghaill (Cecil Grange MacDowell). In December 1916 in New York City, Victor Herbert published his own piano and orchestral arrangements under the title "Soldiers of Erin, the Rallying Song of the Irish Volunteers", on the instigation of R. F. O'Reilly, an Irish priest. O'Reilly arranged for proceeds to go to the Gaelic League, but paid royalties to Kearney and Heeney once he discovered they were the authors. With later cheques from the US, Kearney earned "not much more than £100". The song's first commercial recording was made in New York City in early 1917 by George Potter and commissioned by Ellen Byrne De Witt, a prominent Irish-American businesswoman. Margaret Skinnider, in her 1917 memoir of the rising, called it the "Volunteer Marching Song" and (incorrectly) said "I have been told the men in the rising of '67 also sang it."
By 1917, according to Séumas Robinson, the song was being parodied by British soldiers in Ireland. Éamon de Valera's platform at the June 1917 East Clare by-election featured a large banner with the opening two lines. That October the Irish Volunteers allied with Sinn Féin under de Valera and during the Irish War of Independence (1919–21) the Volunteers evolved into the Irish Republican Army (IRA). The song's popularity led to its being called the "Sinn Féin anthem". Copies were confiscated by British security forces as seditious. Carl Hardebeck played it unannounced on Low Sunday 1918 in St Peter's Cathedral, Belfast. Victor Herbert's version was well known to Irish Americans by 1919, when de Valera arrived as President of Dáil Éireann of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic. In the 1922–23 Civil War, the IRA split into the "National Army" of the nascent Irish Free State and the "Irregulars" loyal to the defunct Republic. Both sides continued to sing "The Soldier's Song". After the war, it remained popular as an Army tune, and was played at many military functions.
The Free State did not initially adopt any official state anthem. The delicate political state in the aftermath of the Civil War provoked a desire to avoid controversy. Ex-unionists continued to regard "God Save the King" as the national anthem, as it had been for the rest of the British Empire. For nationalists, the fact that "The Soldier's Song" described Irishmen fighting a foreign foe allowed it to overlook the painful memory of the Civil War. W. T. Cosgrave, 1922–32 President of the Executive Council, avoided explicitly making it the national anthem for fear of exacerbating the antipathy for the Free State held by unionists in Northern Ireland. On the other hand, the government did not want to disassociate the state from the anthem for fear of leaving a potent symbol available for its republican opponents to claim. The same equivocation hung around the status of the Irish tricolour.
"The Soldier's Song" was widely if unofficially sung by nationalists. Public perception that it was officially recognised sprang from a concert on 3 February 1924 at the Theatre Royal, Dublin by the Army Music School under its German-born director, Colonel Fritz Brase. As an encore to the concert, Brasé conducted "Irish March, no.1", his medley of Irish patriotic airs, which ended with that of "The Soldier's Song". Most dignitaries present stood up at this point, including Governor-General Tim Healy, Cosgrave and most of the Executive Council, although Richard Mulcahy remained seated. On 28 April 1924, Cosgrave expressed opposition to replacing "The Soldier's Song", which was provisionally used within the State. Sean Lester, Publicist at the Department of External Affairs considered "The Soldier's Song" to be "hardly suitable in words or music" and favoured the music, though not the words, of "Let Erin Remember". This was used as the anthem for the state at the 1924 Olympics in Paris,[n 2] and other events abroad for the next two years. The Dublin Evening Mail held contests in 1924 and 1925 to find verses for a new anthem; the first produced no sufficiently good entry, and the second's winning entry was soon forgotten.
There was concern that the lack of an official anthem was giving unionists an opportunity to persist with "God Save the King". Ewan Morris writes, "While some, perhaps many, nationalists undoubtedly disliked 'The soldier's song', few would have objected so strongly as to refuse to honour it as the national anthem. But for ex-unionists 'The soldier's song' remained anathema, and 'God save the king' continued to be the national anthem they honoured." By 1926 foreign diplomats' protocol offices were requesting copies of the anthem's score. On 12 July 1926, the Executive Council decided to adopt it as the National Anthem, with Cosgrave the driving force in the decision. He wrote to Lester, "there must be uniformity in regard to the national anthem and that for the present the 'Soldier's song' is to be used for this purpose both at home and abroad". The decision was not publicised. On 20 June 1926, Osmond Esmonde asked President Cosgrave what the National Anthem was, but the Ceann Comhairle Michael Hayes ruled 'If the Deputy desires to investigate any problem in regard to the National Anthem, he cannot ask a question of the President. The President cannot be asked to define what is the National Anthem. It is not part of his functions.' Esmonde instead asked Minister for Defence Peter Hughes what 'as far as the Army is concerned' was the National Anthem. The draft response provided for Hughes stated that 'while no final decision has been come to', "The Soldier's Song" was 'at present accepted as the National Anthem', However, this wording was vetoed by Cosgrave, and in the Dáil chamber Hughes responded simply 'The "Soldier's Song."'
In 1928, the Army band established the practice of playing only the chorus of the song as the Anthem, because the longer version was discouraging audiences from singing along. Also in 1928, Chief Justice Hugh Kennedy, returning from an official trip to North America, reported that an official arrangement of the music was "very badly needed" for circulation abroad. This was produced in July 1929 by Fritz Brase. This consisted only of the chorus, and was published under the title "The Soldier's Song" rather than "A Soldier's Song", although variants such as the "Soldiers' Song" continued to occur in later official documentation.
The national anthem was played at closedown by Radio Éireann from its inception in 1926. The Catholic Truth Society of Ireland included it in a 1929 publication commemorating the centenary of the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. Cinemas and theatres played the anthem when closing from 1932 until 1972.[n 3] Peadar Kearney, who had received royalties from sheet music publishers, issued legal proceedings for royalties from those now performing the anthem. He was joined by Michael Heeney, brother of Patrick Heeney, who had died in 1911. In 1934, the Department of Finance acquired the copyright of the song for the sum of £1,200 (£980 to the copyright holders plus £220 expenses). Copyright law changed in the 1950s,[n 4] such that the government had to reacquire copyright in 1965, for £2,500. Ruth Sherry states that it is unclear whether the official anthem is the music alone or the text also; however, the official 1934 Estimate of the amount required ... for the acquisition by the state of copyright in the national anthem includes the line item, 'Payment to the holders of copyright in the words and music of the "Soldier's Song"' [emphasis added]. While the state held the copyright, most requests for publication were accepted, "although several of a purely commercial nature, such as its use in advertisements, were refused". As per EU copyright law, the English lyrics' copyright expired on 1 January 2013, following the 70th anniversary of Kearney's death.[n 5] In 2016, three Fianna Fáil senators introduced a private member's bill intended to restore the state's copyright in the anthem.[n 6] The ending of copyright also encourage the Seanad to announce a public consultation on the anthem.
The Governor-General of the Irish Free State was the King's representative and, as such, unionists considered that the appropriate official salute to play was "God Save The King" rather than the Free State Anthem. At James McNeill's 1928 inauguration, the Army band played "The Soldier's Song", but that summer, at two events with unionist organisers, he was greeted by "God Save The King". The Executive Council advised him that in future the Free State anthem must be played. McNeill declined a June 1929 invitation to the Trinity College sports when the college insisted that the British anthem was its tradition. Unionists and people in Great Britain took this as a snub, while for republican commentators it encapsulated the Free State's attempts to suppress the truth about its subservience to Britain. A compromise adopted in 1931 was that "The Soldier's Song" would mark the Governor General's arrival and he would leave before the end of the sports, when "God Save The King" would be played. Following the 1932 general election, Éamon de Valera became President of the Executive Council; as part of his campaign to abolish the office of Governor-General, he forbade the Army band from playing "The Soldier's Song" in McNeill's presence.
The first ceremonial regulations for the Irish Defence Forces, drawn up in 1926, provided that the official "Presidential Salute" for the President of the Executive Council would be the first and last eight bars of the national anthem. The 1937 Constitution renamed the head of government Taoiseach, and introduced the office of President of Ireland. The "Presidential Salute" has since 1937 been used for the President of Ireland, who as head of state takes precedence over the Taoiseach. The Taoiseach's salute is "Mór Chluana", an old Irish air to which Osborn Bergin set "Amhrán Dóchais", which in the 1930s was often suggested as a replacement national anthem.
The Irish translation was written by Liam Ó Rinn (1886–1943), later the Chief Translator of the Oireachtas, who was involved in the Irish versions of both the 1922 Constitution and the 1937 Constitution. Although Sherry says the Irish version was first published in An tÓglach (the magazine of the Irish Defence Forces) on 3 November 1923, an almost identical text was printed in the Freeman's Journal on 3 April 1923, under Ó Rinn's pen name "Coinneach". It may have been written as early as 1917. Ó Rinn's grandson Nial claims Liam started work on a translation while interned in Frongoch after the 1916 Rising. Several other translations had been made by 1923, which Ó Rinn criticised as unreadable. These were in literary Classical Irish, whereas Ó Rinn favoured the living vernacular spoken in Gaeltacht areas. On the other hand, Ó Rinn's Irish was a second language which some native speakers found inelegant. "Rosc Catha na nÓglach", T. F. O'Rahilly's translation, was used by Conradh na Gaeilge in the early 1920s; in 1924, Padraig de Burca said it "deserves more favour than it has received". Other translations included one sung by Claisceadal in University College Galway in December 1931, and others by Pádraig Mac Cárthaigh, Sean Dubhthaigh, Seamus Mac Grianna, and Ernest Blythe. From the 1930s, the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) encouraged singing the anthem in Irish at its matches. The text of the Ó Rinn version was printed in 1933 in An Camán,[n 7] and in the programs of GAA matches at Croke Park, where the crowd was led via the public address system by singers from St Patrick's College of Education and Conradh na Gaeilge, led by Seán Ó Síocháin. Also in 1933 Eamonn O'Neill suggested in the Dáil that schoolchildren should be taught the words in both English and Irish. In 1935 Charles Bewley, Irish envoy to Germany, requested Irish lyrics because "the English text ... makes a bad impression abroad".
Both the English and Irish texts appeared in various editions of Facts about Ireland, published by the Department of Foreign Affairs, and on the official website of the Department of the Taoiseach. However, no Irish version has been officially adopted, the state does not hold the copyright to any Irish version, and Ó Rinn, unlike Kearney and Heeney's estate, never received royalties. A memorandum in the Department of the Taoiseach on 5 April 1958 discussed five distinct Irish translations, noting that Ó Rinn's was the best known; it suggested that, if it were to be officially endorsed, the spelling and grammar should be standardised and the opening words "Sinne Fianna Fáil" changed to "Sinne laochra Fáil" to avoid association with the Fianna Fáil political party. The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended no change to the wording, and pointed out that the law would not prevent a new political party adopting revised words like "Laochra Fáil" as its name.[n 8]
The English version has been almost totally eclipsed, and many are unaware that the Irish lyrics are a translation. In 1960 it was remarked that the anthem's effect at Croke Park was impaired by the fact that some people sang in English and others in Irish. The Irish Times reported audience participation at a 1962 concert in the Olympia Theatre, Dublin under the headline "Sang National Anthem in Irish". Frank Ormsby's 2017 poem "The National Anthem" parodies the Irish text (Buíon dár slua becomes "Binned. Arse. Loo.") which about 1960 he uncomprehendingly learnt by rote in a Catholic school in Northern Ireland. In the 21st century the English version is still sung at home matches of Celtic F.C., a Glasgow Irish-Scots football club. The English version was sung in Canada during a state visit by President Mary McAleese in 1998, and at the 2004 Ryder Cup in the United States. The latter prompted objections from Fáilte Ireland, and what Gaeltacht Minister Éamon Ó Cuív called "an outcry" from viewers in Ireland. A 2002 public sculpture of Kearney includes the Irish lyrics rather than Kearney's. The 2018 Seanad report suggested that "For those not familiar with the Irish language, it may be appropriate to produce a phonetic version of the National Anthem". Some foreign-born Irish international sportspeople have learned the Irish words via ad hoc phonetic versions, including Mick McCarthy of the association football team and CJ Stander of the rugby union team.
In 1987, the anthem was recommended, but not required, to be taught as part of the civics syllabus in national schools. Fianna Fáil's manifesto in the 2007 general election promised to "include the national anthem in the primary school curriculum". As of 2017[update] the primary school Social Personal and Health Education curriculum includes being "aware" of the anthem in third/fourth class, and "respecting" it in fifth/sixth class. Richard Bruton, the Minister for Education stated that it was "not Departmental policy to impose regulations on schools regarding national expression", but that it had supported several initiatives which included the national anthem. To mark the 2016 centenary of the Easter Rising, members of the Defence Forces visited each national school and presented it with a national flag and copies of the national anthem and the 1916 Proclamation. A 2017 opinion poll found 82% supported teaching the anthem in school; 40% claimed to know all the words and 40% "some" of them. The 2018 Seanad report said the anthem was "indeed currently on the curriculum at primary school level. However, once it has been taught at primary school level there are little [sic] opportunities for students to use the National Anthem within the school environment". It said suggestions to sing the anthem at school every day "may not be possible", but school children could be encouraged to sing it on the eve[n 9] of Saint Patrick's Day.
Although only the chorus forms the official national anthem, the music of both verse and chorus has often been played at sports events outside Ireland. The text of the first verse appears as well as the chorus in early (1960s) editions of the Department of External Affairs's book Facts About Ireland. Later editions include only the chorus.
The song is used by many Irish nationalists as an anthem for the entire island of Ireland. As such it is played at all GAA matches, including those in Northern Ireland and overseas. The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended awareness of the anthem among "Irish citizens at home and abroad, as well as new citizens of Ireland". It was common in the twentieth century, and not unknown today, for a music session in a pub to end at closing time with the playing of the national anthem. A 1961 Evening Herald editorial complained that the anthem was played "far too often" and "usually in a most undignified manner", and that it "should be limited to very special occasions".
There is no protocol specified for the anthem; the 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended adopting one and provided a draft. The flag protocol issued by the Department of the Taoiseach states that when the anthem is played in the presence of the national flag, all present should face the flag and stand to attention, and Defence Forces personnel should salute the flag, "until the last note of the music". History professor Caoimhín De Barra comments, "I don't think I have ever seen anyone salute the flag during Amhrán na bhFiann. Certainly, nobody is standing to attention until the last note of music, given that we have effectively replaced the last line of the song with collective freestyle screaming and roaring."
In 2017, the Seanad Public Consultation Committee invited comments on "the most appropriate way the State should treat the National Anthem". Its chair, Mark Daly, said, "The debate around this issue includes aspects of copyright law, cultural tolerance, respect for national symbols, public opinion, free speech and a range of other factors." The committee published 71 of the submissions received, several of whose authors were invited to its hearings on 5 December 2017. Michael W. D'Arcy said the government favoured guidelines rather than legislation, and that penalties for misuse might prove counterproductive. The committee's report was published in July 2018; it recommended producing an official translation into Irish Sign Language (ISL). A deaf choir performed an ISL version of the anthem in Leinster House at the report's official launch. In January 2019, Fianna Fáil senators introduced a private member's bill "to confirm that the choral refrain, with or without the lyrics, of 'Amhrán na bhFiann' or, in the English Language, 'The Soldier's Song' is and continues to be the National Anthem; to provide for a version of the National Anthem in the Irish Sign Language; [and] to confirm that the Presidential Salute is and continues to be the music of the first 4 bars, followed by the last 4 bars, of the National Anthem". The bill lapsed on the Dáil's 2020 dissolution. During the 2021 COVID-19 lockdown, RTÉ published a guide by Bishopstown Community School to assist schoolchildren learning the anthem's ISL version.
Suggestions to replace the anthem are reported regularly. In the 1933 Dáil debate on the state's acquisition of the song's copyright, there was discussion of its merits or lack thereof. Frank MacDermot said, 'Leaving out sentiment, I must confess, from both a literary and a musical point of view, I would regard the "Soldier's Song" as, shall we say, a jaunty little piece of vulgarity, and I think we could have done a lot better.' Thomas F. O'Higgins responded, "National Anthems come about, not because of the suitability of the particular words or notes, but because they are adopted generally by the nation. That is exactly how the "Soldier's Song" became a National Anthem in this country. It happened to be the Anthem on the lips of the people when they came into their own and when the outsiders evacuated the country and left the insiders here to make the best or the worst of the country. It was adopted by the people here before ever it was adopted by the Executive Council". Fintan O'Toole called it "Edwardian English music hall jingo".
The Irish version is a free translation of the English; Richard Parfitt says it tones down some of the original's militancy. "Sinne Fianna Fáil"[fn 1] is not a literal translation of "Soldiers are we". Fianna Fáil, variously translated as "Soldiers of Destiny", "Warriors of Fál", "Warriors of Destiny", "The Irish Army", or "Soldiers of Ireland", Éamon de Valera regarded the phrase's untranslatability as a virtue. This is from the Irish Fianna ("bands of warriors") of Fál (a coronation stone, and metonymically "Ireland"). As an Irish name for the Irish Volunteers, it was an alternative to Óglaigh na hÉireann. The initials "FF" appeared on the Volunteer badge, and remain on that of Irish Defence Forces as successor to the Volunteers. On 2 April 1926, "Fianna Fáil" was chosen as the name of Éamon de Valera's new political party. Ó Rinn's version appeared in a 1927 volume of poetry with a foreword by de Valera. Since the Irish version of the anthem became popular in the 1930s, there has been intermittent resentment of the party name's occurring in it. Publishers Browne & Nolan printed a version in 1938 substituting "Sinne laochra Fáil" for "Sinne Fianna Fáil" (laochra = "heroes", "warriors"), which is occasionally heard instead. TD Maureen O'Sullivan likewise favoured changing to "laochra Fáil". In the Dáil in 2011 and 2012, she asked the Minister for Finance Michael Noonan whether "Sinne Fianna Fáil" was "appropriate and correct" or had "party political connotations"; Noonan stated it was appropriate and had no such connotations, given that the translation predated the party's founding. The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem took the same view. Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin said the Irish lyrics sound worse than the English ones, which rhyme and so are easier to learn. Ó Súilleabháin has also written that the national anthem is "in effect an ungainly pastiche in the style of a British march".
Ulster unionists regard the anthem as specific to the Republic of Ireland, not symbolic of the whole island of Ireland, and deprecate its use with United Ireland symbolism as irredentism. The symbolism of flags in Northern Ireland raises similar issues: in 1933, the unionist government invoked its Special Powers Act to ban public display of the tricolour when "representing the Irish Republican Army ... an Irish Republic ... or... any ... unlawful association"; the order was interpreted as a ban in all circumstances unless flown explicitly to represent the Free State. Similar orders specifically banning "The Soldier's Song" were drafted before the 1935 Westminster and 1938 Stormont elections, but the government felt they were too controversial to implement; a general order against music "likely to lead to a breach of the peace" was often invoked when "The Soldier's Song" was played. After the Northern Ireland peace process, when unionists and Conservatives began attending GAA matches in their official capacity, they arrived after the playing of "Amhrán na bhFiann", including sports minister Edwin Poots in 2008, First Minister Peter Robinson in 2012, and Northern Ireland Secretary James Brokenshire in 2017. Robinson's successor Arlene Foster stood for the anthem at the 2018 Ulster Football Final, which was played in the Republic.
F. Gunther Eyck's survey of national anthems classifies "Amhrán na bhFiann" under "resistance anthems", alongside "La Marseillaise", "A Portuguesa", and "Poland Is Not Yet Lost". The lyrics have been criticised by some commentators for alleged outdatedness, militarism, and anti-British sentiment. Others deny such faults or attribute them to national anthems generally. Richard Parfitt remarks of the lyrics that "few who sing it really wish to stand amidst 'cannon's roar' against the 'Saxon foe'". Kevin Myers described calls for the anthem to be amended or replaced as "seasonal as spring". Questions in the Dáil have been asked by Frank MacDermot in 1932; Noel Lemass in 1973; Trevor Sargent in 1993; Derek McDowell in 1995; and John Browne in 2000. Commentators on the 1929 Trinity College incident suggested "The Soldier's Song" would be an impediment to closer ties between the Free State and Northern Ireland. The executive of arts body Aosdána rejected a 1989 proposal by Aloys Fleischmann to campaign for a change of anthem, on the basis that it was a political rather than an artistic question. In 1995, during the Northern Ireland peace process, Taoiseach John Bruton suggested at the Forum for Peace and Reconciliation that the anthem be changed, with Fianna Fáil and Sinn Féin disagreeing. The Forum drafted an unpublished report on "obstacles to reconciliation in the Republic"; 1998 newspaper articles summarising the draft claimed it suggested "the government could commission alternative anthems for sporting and other non-official occasions" which were not "excessively militaristic". In 1996 Fergus McCann responded to sectarianism in Glasgow by banning Celtic F.C. terrace chants of Irish rebel songs; "The Soldier's Song" was specifically excluded from the ban. A 2017 opinion poll found 84% supported retaining the anthem, while 10% favoured replacing it. Historian Fearghal McGarry suggests the fact that the lyrics are no longer sung in English dampens demand for change: "public unfamiliarity with Peadar Kearney's original words has almost certainly extended his song's shelf life as the national anthem".
In a debate during the 2011 presidential election, candidates were asked whether the anthem was "fit for purpose". Most acknowledged strong public attachment to it. Martin McGuinness and Dana Rosemary Scallon opposed any change. Mary Davis said people "shouldn't consider changing it lightly". Michael D. Higgins suggested the Constitutional Convention could discuss the matter. Seán Gallagher had "mixed views" and was "open to explore revising it". David Norris said other anthems were more "blood-thirsty". The 2018 Seanad report on the anthem recommended no change to the wording.
The previous anthem used by Irish nationalists was "God Save Ireland", with words written by Timothy Daniel Sullivan in 1867 to the tune of "Tramp! Tramp! Tramp!", an American Civil War song written in 1864 by George Frederick Root. "God Save Ireland" commemorated the Manchester Martyrs, executed in 1867 for felony murder for their part in an Irish Republican Brotherhood ambush, and it quickly replaced the previous unofficial anthem, "A Nation Once Again", written in 1845 by Thomas Davis of the Young Ireland movement. "God Save Ireland" was associated with the Irish Parliamentary Party and its eclipse by "The Soldier's Song" after 1916 mirrored the party's eclipse by Sinn Féin.
The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) and Ireland national rugby union team are all-island bodies with many unionist supporters; although "Amhrán na bhFiann" is played at Ireland matches in the Republic, it is not played elsewhere, and unionist players are not expected to sing it. During the Troubles, no anthem was played at matches outside Ireland. In Paris, "The Last Rose of Summer" was played in 1929, and before the 1931 match the Department of External Affairs advised ambassador Gerald O'Kelly de Gallagh that, if the organisers refused to allow "The Soldier's Song", then "appropriate Irish airs would be 'St. Patrick's Day', 'The Last Rose of Summer' or 'Let Erin Remember'". At the inaugural Rugby World Cup, captain Donal Lenihan objected that all other teams would have an anthem. At the last minute before the side's opening match in Athletic Park, Wellington, a James Last cassette recording of "The Rose of Tralee" was borrowed from Phil Orr; the music and poor recording quality attracted much criticism and no anthem was played for later matches. At the 1991 World Cup, there was no anthem away to Scotland, Ireland's only game outside Dublin.
For the 1995 World Cup in South Africa, the IRFU decided to commission a song from Phil Coulter. His composition, "Ireland's Call", has since been played alongside "Amhrán na bhFiann" at matches within the Republic, and on its own elsewhere, including in Northern Ireland. Other all-island teams have adopted "Ireland's Call" for similar reasons to the IRFU's. The men's and women's hockey teams adopted it in 2000, having previously used the "Londonderry Air"; however, a first-ever Olympic qualification saw the Olympic Council of Ireland standard "Amhrán na bhFiann" used at Rio 2016. Some sports use no anthem, including badminton and bowls. Criticism that "Ireland's Call" was uninspiring prompted The Irish Times to commission a jocular "alternanthem" from The Duckworth Lewis Method for Saint Patrick's Day 2010.
A recording of "O'Donnell Abú" was played for the Irish showjumping team at a 1937 competition in Paris; ambassador Art O'Brien threatened a diplomatic incident since the other teams' anthems had been played by a military band. The organisers had been unable to locate a copy of the score, and the Irish embassy had only a piano arrangement. The same air was chosen by the women's hockey team for a 1951 away match against the Netherlands.
"The Fields of Athenry" was adopted as a terrace chant by Irish fans at the 1990 FIFA World Cup and later by fans of the rugby team. It has been described as a "de facto national sporting anthem" and "unofficial national anthem".
The air is of a style comparable with British marches and songs of the era. Colm Ó Lochlainn said, "The tune is not Irish; it sounds to me something between a Sousa march and a German regimental song". The melody's pentatonic scale adds some difficulty for the singer. It is usually sung or played in march time. Different tempos may be used, however, and the verse and chorus are occasionally played. In 1926 the radio orchestra of 2RN was found too small for an adequate rendition, so a recording by the New York "Fighting Irish" 69th Infantry was soon adopted, prompting complaints that it was too jazz-influenced. A 1961 Evening Herald editorial complained that the anthem was "usually played without any arrangement and often at a tempo more suggestive of a jig tune than an anthem". Fritz Brase's 1930 arrangement was replaced for Defence Forces bands in the 1980s by one by Colonel James R. McGee which simplified the high woodwind parts. Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ), the Irish national broadcasting company, played an orchestral version in a slow tempo at the close of transmission from 1962 onwards. This was produced by Gerard Victory and arranged by Brian Boydell (who disliked the tune) on the advice of a Canadian consultant who said, "I wan' it BIG! I envisage the kind of music that will stir the hearts of the Irish people". Boydell's version replaced one by John Francis Larchet introduced in 1954. A special arrangement incorporating traditional Irish instruments was played instead during Easter Week 1966, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising. There was negative comment at the lively tempo used in the ceremony for Michelle Smith's gold medals at the 1996 Olympics.
The lyrics are those of an Irish rebel song, exhorting all Irish people (both "Gaels" and "men of the Pale") to participate in the struggle to end the hegemony ("despot" over "slave") of the English ("Saxon foe") in Ireland ("Inisfail"). There are allusions to earlier Irish rebellions, and to support from Irish Americans ("from a land beyond the wave") such as Clan na Gael. Eyck attributes the song's rise to popularity to its "down-to-earth lines, descriptive imagery, fighting stance, and patriotic passion".
The original Irish translation by Ó Rinn used distinctly Munster Irish spelling, however, slight variations exist in modern published versions; in the following texts, the chorus is from the 2018 Seanad report; and the verses are based on National Anthems of the World (6th edition) with Irish spellings altered to meet the standards of An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, though, the original Munster Irish spellings are still in common usage.
The chorus is the established National Anthem.
|Irish version||IPA transcription||English version|
Sinne Fianna Fáil,[fn 1]
[ˈʃɪ.n̠ʲə ˈfʲi(ə).n̪ˠə ˈfˠɑːlʲ]
Soldiers are we,
- Literally "We are the Fianna [see Fenian Cycle] of Fál [see Lia Fáil]"
- Rather than the standard Irish forms faoi and faoin, National Anthems of the World has fé and fé'n respectively, which reflects the Munster Irish variants used in the originally published lyrics.
- Literal translation: "For love of the Gael, towards death or life"
- canaíg or canaidh, the form used in the original Irish translation of the song published by Ó Rinn is a Munster Irish variant of the standard form canaigí. As the standard form would not fit the meter the unusual form canaig' used by The Department of the Taoiseach is evidently an abbreviation of canaigí.
- Kearney's original, otherwise English, text, includes bearna bhaoil, Irish for "gap of danger".
The anthem consists only of the chorus of the song. The original has three verses, set to a slightly different tune, with the following lyrics:
|Irish version||English version|
In the summer of 1937, probably motivated by the enactment of the Constitution of Ireland and its inclusion of Northern Ireland within the "national territory", Kearney wrote an extra verse "in answer to a request that the Irish of the Six North-Eastern Counties [i.e. Northern Ireland] could register a protest against the British-planned Partition of Ulster". It was published in The Irish Press in 1938. As of 1998[update], no recorded version included the extra verse, which runs:[n 10]
- While Sherry and de Burca give 1907 as the date of composition, Peadar Kearney in an August 1926 affidavit gives the later date.
- The state did not win any medals, but "Let Erin Remember" was played before the football team's matches.
- Correspondence in The Irish Times in 1969 suggested the abbreviated Presidential salute was then being played rather than the full anthem.
- The year 1959 is given by Sherry, citing minister James Ryan when introducing the 1965 change. However, Eoin O'Dell surmises that the change referred to was section 9 of the Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1957.
- The copyright in the Irish translation has also expired: either on 1 January 2014, being 70 years after Ó Rinn's death, or on 1 January 1974, being 50 years from its publication; the latter applies if Ó Rinn translated it in his capacity as a public servant.
- Originally Bill 19 of 2016; reintroduced after that year's general election as Bill 62 of 2016.
- An Camán was the joint official magazine of the GAA and Conradh na Gaeilge, an Irish-language organisation.
- The relevant law is section 25(5) of the Electoral Act 1992, as substituted by section 11 of the Electoral (Amendment) Act, 2001.
- Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in Ireland on which schools are closed.
- The version quoted in McGarry 2015 p.228 has slight differences of spelling; including "pirate brood" instead of "pirate blood".
- "National Anthem". Department of the Taoiseach "Youth Zone" web page. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- de Burca 1957 p.52
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee (5 December 2017). "Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem". Oireachtas Joint and Select Committees. KildareStreet.com. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- de Burca 1957 pp.50–51
- Sherry, Ruth (Spring 1996). "The Story of the National Anthem". History Ireland. Dublin. 4 (1): 39–43. JSTOR 27724313.
- Connell, Joseph E.A. (March–April 2013). "Countdown to 2016: A Soldier's Song/ Amhrán na bhFiann". History Ireland. 21 (2).
- de Burca 1957 pp.52–53
- One Productions 2015 at 8m40s
- Gartland, Fiona (13 April 2006). "First draft of national anthem sells for €760,000". The Irish Times. p. 7. Retrieved 14 March 2009.; "LOT: 342: IRELAND'S NATIONAL ANTHEM Amhran na bhFiann". Auction: INDEPENDENCE 12 April 2006. Dublin: Adams. 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- de Burca 1957 p.53
- "A soldier's song". Holdings. National Library of Ireland. EPH A213. Retrieved 10 November 2023.
- de Burca 1957 p.54
- O'Connor, Batt (1929). With Michael Collins in The Fight for Irish Independence. Mill Street: Aubane Historical Society. pp. 68–70.
- "MU-sb-1420: The soldier's song". Holdings. National Library of Ireland. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "'The Doctor, the Countess and the Organist' – 1916 tales from St John's Sandymount". United Dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
Cecil Grange MacDowell, who had been organist at St John's, who changed his name to Cathal Mac Dubhghaill, forsook his unionist background, joined the rebellion and wrote the first arrangement of the National Anthem.
- de Burca 1957 pp.55–56
- "The Musical Worlds of Victor Herbert". Online Exhibitions. Library of Congress. Arrangement of Irish Folk Tune. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Soldiers of Erin". Irish Fest Collection. irishsheetmusicarchives.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Casey, Marion R. (January–February 2017). "Was Victor Herbert Irish?". History Ireland. 25 (1): 20–23. JSTOR 90005256.
- "Soldiers of Erin ; Old Ireland Shall Be Free [sound recording] / George Potter". Holdings. Irish Traditional Music Archive. 10852-SE. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
- Skinnider, Margaret (1917). Doing my bit for Ireland. New York: Century. p. 237.
- Robinson, Séamus. "Witness Statement 1721" (PDF). Bureau of Military History. p. 66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
The Volunteers there were just wild because the Rebellion had come and gone and nothing had happened in proud Tipperary. What goaded the Volunteers more than anything else was the parody on "The Soldier's Song" which the British soldier elements used sing on the least provocation — "Soldiers are we, who nearly fought for Ireland".
- Morgan, Hiram (30 September 2017). "'De Valera is 34, dark, deified.' An English woman meets Ireland's rebels, 1917". The Irish Times. Retrieved 11 February 2019.; photograph is Editorial #3247099 from Getty Images
- Ó Drisceoil, Donal (4 February 2015). "Keeping disloyalty within bounds? British media control in Ireland, 1914–19". Irish Historical Studies. 38 (149): 52–69: 59. doi:10.1017/S0021121400000626. hdl:10468/3057. JSTOR 43654254. S2CID 232251175.
- Dunphy, Eugene (January–February 2019). "A Hundred Years in the Foggy Dew". History Ireland. Wordwell. 27 (1): 32–35: 32. JSTOR 26566001.
- Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.32
- Allen, Gregory (13 October 1984). "The National Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 19.
- Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.417
- Morris 1998 pp.76, 83
- Dudley Edwards, Owen (21 April 1976). "Choosing of the Irish Flag and Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 13.
- Carey, Tadhg (July–August 2012). "Ireland's footballers at the Paris Olympics, 1924". History Ireland. 20 (4).
- Morris 1998 p.77
- Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.33
- Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.35
- "Ceisteannea—Questions. Oral answers. – Saorstát National Anthem". Dáil Éireann – Volume 16. 20 July 1926. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Morris 1998 p.76
- Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.34
- Mullaney-Dignam 2008 p.31 fn.83
- McElligott, Moira (7 April 1969). "The National Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 7.
- Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. – Playing of National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 258 – 27 January 1972
- Department of Finance (November 1933). Estimate of the amount required in the year ending 31st March, 1934, for the acquisition by the state of copyright in the national anthem (PDF). Official publications. Vol. P.1116. Stationery Office.
- "Appropriation Act, 1934, Schedule 2". Irish Statute Book. 19 July 1934. No.75. Retrieved 12 May 2016.
- Written Answers. – National Anthem. Dáil Éireann – Volume 609 – 8 November 2005
- O'Dell, Eoin (11 July 2016). "Copyright and the National Anthem; unravelling a tangled past, avoiding a gap of danger – I – The Soldier's Song". cearta.ie. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- "Industrial and Commercial Property (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1957, Section 9". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Committee on Finance. – Vote 18—Miscellaneous Expenses. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 214 – 2 March 1965
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee (6 October 2017). "Consultation on the Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem" (PDF). Oireachtas. p. 2. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
- Oireachtas, Houses of the (3 May 2011). "Dáil Éireann (31st Dáil) – Tuesday, 3 May 2011 – Houses of the Oireachtas". www.oireachtas.ie.
- Bohan, Christine (27 January 2013). "It's official: copyright on the National Anthem has ended". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- O'Dell, Eoin (12 July 2016). "Copyright and the National Anthem; unravelling a tangled past, avoiding a gap of danger – II – Amhrán na bhFiann". cearta.ie. Retrieved 16 November 2017.
- "National Anthem (Protection of Copyright and Related Rights) (Amendment) Bill 2016 [Seanad] [PMB] (Number 19 of 2016)". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- "National Anthem Protection of Copyright and Related Rights (Amendment) (No. 2) Bill 2016". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- "Seanad Public Consultation Committee is seeking your views on the Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem". Oireachtas. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- Morris 1998 pp.78–79
- Morris 1998 p.79
- Morris 1998 pp.79–80
- Morris 1998 pp.85–86
- Morris 1998 p.89
- "The 'Taoiseach's Salute'". The Irish Times. 16 May 1950. p. 6. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- Bowles, Michael; Ní Ógáin, Ríonach (23 December 1983). "Claisceadal: 'Amhrán Dóchais'". The Irish Times (in Irish). p. 6. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- Ó Rinn, Liam (3 November 1923). "Aḃrán na ḃFian" (PDF). An T-Óglaċ (in Irish). Dublin. 1 NS (17): 13.
- Coinneach (3 April 1923). "Roinnt Versaiochta". Freeman's Journal (in Irish). p. 2.
- Breathnach, Diarmuid; Ní Mhurchú, Máire. "Ó Rinn, Liam (1886–1943)". ainm.ie (in Irish). Fiontar & Scoil na Gaeilge. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
ainm eile: Coinneach
- de Bréadún, Deaglán (27 February 1991). "Tuarascáil: Téacs 'Amhrán na bhFiann' in amhras fós". The Irish Times (in Irish). p. 13. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Fahey 2017
- O'Rahilly, T. F. "Irish translation of "The soldiers' song.": Rosc catha na nÓglaoc [sic]". Samuels Collection of printed ephemera; box 5, no. 28 (in Irish). Dublin: Trinity College Library. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- Cuan Ó Seireadáin, Receipt No. 39 pp. 82–83 in Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018b
- de Burca, Padraic (1924). "The soldier's song". In W. G. Fitzgerald (ed.). The voice of Ireland/Glór na hÉireann: a survey of the race and nation from all angles by the foremost leaders at home and abroad. Dublin and London: Virtue & Co. pp. 151–153.
- "Amhran na bhFiann". Connacht Sentinel (in Irish). 29 December 1931. p. 2.
- Sherry 1998 p.39; Mac Cárthaigh, Pádraig (17 November 1917). "Aṁrán na ḃFíann!". An Claidheamh Soluis (in Irish): 5 [p. 261 of online volume]. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
- Sherry 1998 p.39; printed [as cited in Coakley 1980 fn.33] in An Phoblacht (18 April 1931); reprinted in Ar Aghaidh vol.1 no.8 (October 1931)
- Sherry 1998 p.39
- O'Leary, Philip (2010). Gaelic Prose in the Irish Free State: 1922-1939. Penn State Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780271030104.
- Ó Síochán, Seán (1 September 1984). "Individualistic style has disappeared". The Irish Times. p. 39.; Fullam, Brendan (1999). Off the Field and On: Triumphs and Trials of Gaelic Games. Dublin: Wolfhound. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-86327-760-3 – via Internet Archive.
- "Ceisteanna—Questions. Oral Answers. — The National Anthem". Dáil Éireann (8th Dáil). Oireachtas. 25 July 1933. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
Does he not think it right that the National Anthem should be taught to children in the National Schools? ... In what language? ... Bilingual.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018a p.18
- "Electoral (Amendment) Act, 2001 s.11". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General of Ireland. 24 October 2001. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- McGarry 2015 p.350
- Cited in Fahey 2017
- "Sang National Anthem in Irish". The Irish Times. 18 June 1962. p. 10. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- O'Toole, Fintan (5 June 2018). "National Anthem is tone deaf to new Ireland". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
- Ormsby, Frank (2017). "The National Anthem". The Darkness of Snow. Newcastle: Bloodaxe. p. 7. ISBN 978-1780373669.
- Pollak, Andy (26 September 1996). "Celt fans who sing pro-IRA songs to be banned". The Irish Times. p. 5. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
Mr McLean emphasised that the Irish National Anthem, whose English version, The Soldier's Song, is sung by the fans, is not on the banned list.
- McDonnell, Gerry (15 January 2004). "[Letters to the Editor] ...and so is 'Off the Ball' column". Irish Independent. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Buckley, Geoffrey (23 October 1998). "The National Anthem". The Irish Times. p. 15.
- Reid, Philip; John O'Sullivan (18 September 2004). "Oakland Hills Diary: Striking right note". The Irish Times. p. 31. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
- Ó Cuív, Éamon (31 October 2004). "World heritage lost if Irish dies". Sunday Independent. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Priority Questions. – Irish Language. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 592 – 9 November 2004
- Parfitt, Richard (2 October 2019). "Reclaiming an Irish National Hero: Seamus De Búrca's Biography of Peadar Kearney, The Soldier's Song (1957)". Journal of Musicological Research. 38 (3–4): 313–328. doi:10.1080/01411896.2019.1643244. S2CID 201476692.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018a p.27
- Holmes, Michael; Storey, David (2011). "Transferring national allegiance: cultural affinity or flag of convenience?". Sport in Society. 14 (2): 253–271. doi:10.1080/17430437.2011.546550. ISSN 1743-0437. S2CID 143721827.; Mulhall, James (24 September 2015). "A cheat's guide to learning to sing the Irish National Anthem". The Irish Post. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Purewal, Nick (29 January 2016). "'I learned the Irish National Anthem from Youtube clips' - CJ Stander excited to be part of Six Nations squad". Irish Independent. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Written Answers. – National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 374 – 3 November 1987
- Fáil, Fianna (May 2007). "The Next Steps Forward to a Future that is Healthier, Fairer and More Inclusive; Education" (PDF). Now, The Next Steps. michaelpidgeon.com. p. 124. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
Include the national anthem in the primary school curriculum, teach school children about the role and significance of our national flag, and instil in them respect for the place of other nations' anthems and flags
- "Scanlon reveals anthem for schools plan". The Sligo Champion. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (1999). "Social, Personal & Health Education" (PDF). Primary School Curriculum. Dublin: Stationery Office. pp. 50, 55. ISBN 9780707663326. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
- "Written answers: Schools Administration". Dáil proceedings. KildareStreet.com. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Humphreys, Heather (29 November 2016). "Arts in Education Charter". Dáil Éireann : Written answers. KildareStreet.com. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- O'Brien, Stephen (15 October 2017). "Fewer than half know Amhran na bhFiann". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018a p.24
- Dwyer, Ryle (26 March 2013). "A national anthem but how many could sing it?". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018a pp.24–25, 32–34
- "The National Flag" (PDF). Department of the Taoiseach. 2016. p. 26, §§11.2, 12. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- De Barra, Caoimhín (23 October 2017). "Opinion: 'Our indifference to our flag and anthem is actually healthy'". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018b p. 137
- "Seanad Public Consultation Committee to hold hearings on the National Anthem on Tuesday 5 December" (Press release). Oireachtas. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.; "Meeting of the Seanad Public Consultation Committee — Webcast Recording". Committee Debates. Oireachtas. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- "Call for national anthem to be legally protected". RTÉ.ie. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018 p.19; "Protocols in relation to the use of the National Anthem should be introduced- Seanad Public Consultation Committee report" (Press release). Oireachtas. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- McMorrow, Conor (17 July 2018). "Sign language version of National Anthem debuts". RTE.ie. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
- "National Anthem Bill 2019 – No. 3 of 2019". Oireachtas. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
- "It's time to get hands on with the National Anthem". Home School Hub. RTÉ. 5 March 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
- In Committee on Finance. – Vote 75—National Anthem. Dáil Éireann – Volume 50 – 22 November 1933
- Coakley 1980 pp.173,176
- Coakley 1980 p.176; Garvin, Tom (2005). The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics: Irish Parties and Irish Politics from the 18th Century to Modern Times. Gill & Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 9780717163892.
A final point in favour of the name was its very untranslatability, as de Valera remarked later with a smile, 'there was some virtue in that also.'
- Ó Dónaill, Niall. "fiann". Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla (in Irish). Foras na Gaeilge. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "5 fál". Dictionary of the Irish Language. Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved 28 June 2020.; Ó Dónaill, Niall. "Fál2". Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla. Foras na Gaeilge. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- Coakley 1980 p.175
- Ó Cuív, Shán, ed. (1927). An Dórd Féinne agus Dánta Eile (in Irish). Dublin: Brown & Nolan. OCLC 563806681.; cited in Coakley 1980 p.176 & fn.32
Mulcahy, Richard (2 December 1958). "Third Amendment of the Constitution Bill, 1958—Second Stage (resumed)". Dáil Éireann – Volume 171. p. col.1316. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
Fianna Fáil, stemming from those years which we must regard as very unfortunate, slipping its hand into the "Soldier's Song", which became the National Anthem, and taking its name out of it so that school children and people who wanted to honour the country in the National Anthem, and wanted to cement the country's institutions, would be expected to sing "Sinne Fianna Fáil".
- Cullen, Paul (5 May 2011). "Is it swansong for national anthem when copyright dies?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- Dáil debates 11 May 2011 p.46, 31 January 2012 p.101
- One Productions 2015 9m40s – 10m10s
- Ó Súilleabháin, Mícheál (1981). "Irish Music Defined". The Crane Bag. 5 (2): 83–87. ISSN 0332-060X. JSTOR 30060639.
- Sugden, John; Harvie, Scott (1995). "Chapter 3 : The Organisational Politics of Sport in Northern Ireland". Sport and Community Relations in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster. ISBN 1-85923-091-1.
- "DUP minister seeks end to Irish anthem at GAA matches". Independent.ie. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Donohue, Laura K. (December 1998). "Regulating Northern Ireland: The Special Powers Acts, 1922-1972". The Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 41 (4): 1089–1120. doi:10.1017/S0018246X98008188. JSTOR 3020863. S2CID 159502014.
- Moriarty, Gerry (30 January 2017). "NI secretary accused of snubbing Irish national anthem". The Irish Times. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
- "DUP leader attends Ulster GAA final". BBC News. 24 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Eyck 1995 pp. vi–vii
- Libraries Development. "Learning Zone > Secondary Students > CSPE > Irish National Anthem". AskAboutIreland. Local Government Management Agency. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- Myers, Kevin. "We do not have a settled identity for our anthem". Irish Independent. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
- Kinealy, Christine (April–May 2016). "Time to Say Goodbye to the Irish National Anthem?". Irish America. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Smyth, Gerry (7 October 2012). "What's the point of our national anthem today?". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Logue, Paddy (2000). Being Irish: personal reflections on Irish identity today. Oak Tree Press. p. 186. ISBN 9781860762017.
- Kenny, John (14 March 2009). "A Tale of Cloister and Heart. [Review of The Love of Sisters, by Eugene McCabe]" (PDF). The Irish Times. Weekend p.10. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
McCabe himself occasionally falters – ... the sentiment of Amhrán na bhFiann hardly constitutes "Anglophobia" exactly.
- Reilly, Gavan (18 October 2011). "The TG4 Presidential Election debate, as it happened". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Presidential candidates in TG4 debate". Dublin: RTÉ. 19 October 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
- Delaney, Niall (2 November 2011). "Soldiers are we - God save our anthem!". Sligo Champion. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- O'Connor, Niall (19 October 2011). "Sean Gallagher calls for changes to Amhran na bhFiann". Evening Herald. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Parfitt, Richard (3 June 2020). "Soldier's songs and the War of Independence". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
- Oral Answers. – The National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 44 – 16 November 1932
- "Questions. Oral Answers. — National Anthem". Dáil Éireann (20th Dáil). Oireachtas. 2 May 1973. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
- Written Answers. – National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 429 – 8 April 1993
- Written Answers. – National Anthem. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 457 – 17 October 1995
- Ceisteanna–Questions. – Northern Ireland Issues. Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Dáil Éireann – Volume 526 – 22 November 2000
- Morris 1998 p.88
- Hogan, Dick (15 September 1989). "Aosdana rejects new anthem proposal". The Irish Times. p. 7. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- "Chronology". Fortnight. Belfast (345): 6. December 1995. JSTOR 25558662.
- Dowling, Brian (11 August 1998). "Threatening to sound death knell for the Angelus bell". Irish Independent. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- Dowling, Brian (11 August 1998). "Drop the Angelus and axe anthem". Irish Independent. Retrieved 9 February 2012.
- McGarry 2015 pp.350–351
- Alter, Peter (1974). "Symbols of Irish Nationalism". Studia Hibernica. Liverpool University Press (14): 104–123 : 109–111, 118–119. doi:10.3828/sh.1974.14.6. JSTOR 20496051. S2CID 242527504.
- Lenihan 2016 p.70
- Lenihan 2016 p.82; Cronin, Mike (2007). "Rugby globalisation and Irish identity". In Maguire, Joseph (ed.). Power and Global Sport: Zones of Prestige, Emulation and Resistance. Routledge. pp. 122–124. ISBN 9781134527274.
- "France-Ireland rugby match : from Sean Murphy to Count Gerald O'Kelly de Gallagh". Documents on Irish Foreign Policy. Royal Irish Academy. 16 December 1930. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- Lenihan 2016 pp.82–86; Glennon, Jim (4 September 2011). "It's a different world since it all began in 1987". Sunday Independent. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- Lenihan 2016 p.86
- Rouse, Paul (2015). Sport and Ireland: A History. OUP Oxford. p. 360. ISBN 9780191063039.
- "Should the Irish players be singing Amhrán na bhFiann at the World Cup in New Zealand?". Irish Examiner. 8 October 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- "Rugby international sparks anthem row at Ravenhill". The News Letter. Belfast. 13 November 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- Clerkin, Malachy (31 January 2015). "Ireland's Call: standing tall for 20 years". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Doherty, Conan (6 August 2016). "Serious confusion over Ireland's national anthem for Rio hockey opener". SportsJOE.ie. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
- Carroll, Jim (16 March 2010). ""Ireland, Ireland!" – a new national anthem". The Irish Times. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "National Anthem from Art O'Brien to Joseph P. Walshe". Documents on Irish Foreign Policy. Royal Irish Academy. 14 May 1937. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
- Moore, Cormac (2017). "Partition in Irish Sport during the 1950s". In Dolan, Paddy; Connolly, John (eds.). Sport and National Identities: Globalization and Conflict. Routledge. ISBN 9781315519111.
- Coughlan, Aidan (24 June 2012). "How 'The Fields of Athenry' became our new national anthem". Sunday Independent.
- Heffernan, Breda (30 April 2013). "Chorus of approval: Academy honours 'musical royalty'". Irish Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- One Productions 2015 at 7m–8m30s
- Moylan, Terry (6 June 2018). "A new anthem for a new Ireland?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Eyck 1995 pp. 86, 96n.8
- Galyean, Crystal N. (2012). Hanging the Harp on the Willow Tree: Music and National Identity in Postcolonial Ireland (MA). Rutgers University–Newark. pp. 85–86. Retrieved 22 February 2020 – via Academia.edu.
- Mawe, Shane; Stanley, Roy (18 August 2015). "The Soldier's Song". Changed Utterly: Ireland and the Easter Rising. Dublin: Trinity College Library. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
- "National Anthem New Year's Eve". RTÉ Archives. RTÉ.ie. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "War and Conflict : Amhrán na bhFiann". RTÉ Archives. RTÉ.ie. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- Smith, Michelle (1996). Gold : a triple champion's story. Edinburgh: Mainstream. pp. 109–110. ISBN 9781851589302. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
It was also thrilling to see the tricolour go up and hear them play "Amhran na bhFiann". I know there was controversy at home over the speed they played the anthem, but I couldn't care less what version they used. I was so wrapped up in the emotion of it all that it didn't dawn on me that the speed was wrong[.]
- Williams, W. H. A. (1996). 'Twas only an Irishman's dream: the image of Ireland and the Irish in American popular song lyrics, 1800–1920. University of Illinois Press. p. 187. ISBN 0-252-06551-4.
- Eyck 1995 p.95
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee 2018a p.29
- Reed, W.L.; Bristow, M.J., eds. (1985). National Anthems of the World (6th ed.). Poole: Blandford Press. pp. 234–237. ISBN 0713715251.
- Jane Lyons (30 January 2013). "Amhráin na bhFiann by Peadar Kearney". From-Ireland.net. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- Gaeilge na Sraithe Sóisearaí: Nótaí d'iar-bhunscoileanna Gaeltachta agus lán-Ghaeilge (PDF) (in Irish). An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta. 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- "Ireland's Call". BBC Sport. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- Wood, Richard (24 May 2015). "Aoibhneas Na Bealtaine: concert programme" (PDF). Dundalk Institute of Technology. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- Ó Dónaill, Niall (1977). "fé". Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla. Foras na Gaeilge. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
- "Na Rialacha : 23 I". Litriú na Gaeilge – Lámhleabhar An Chaighdeáin Oifigiúil (in Irish). Dublin: Stationery Office / Oifig an tSoláthair. 1947. p. 26. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
- Victor Meally, ed. (1968). Encyclopaedia of Ireland. A. Figgis. p. 172.
- de Burca 1957 p.246; Sherry 1998 p.49
- McGarry 2015 p.367: Chapter 15, fn.48
- Coakley, John (1980). "The Significance of Names : the Evolution of Irish Party Labels". Études irlandaises. 5 (1): 171–182. doi:10.3406/irlan.1980.2213.
- de Burca, Séamus (1957). The Soldier's Song: The Story of Peadar Ó Cearnaigh. Dublin: P. J. Bourke. OCLC 559798527.
- Eyck, F. Gunther (1995). The Voice of Nations: European National Anthems and Their Authors. Contributions to the study of music and dance. Vol. 34. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313293207. ISSN 0193-9041 – via Internet Archive.
- Fahey, Denis (8 October 2017). "Liam O Rinn". Ireland's Own.
- Lenihan, Donal (2016). Donal Lenihan: My Life in Rugby. Transworld. ISBN 9781473540019.
- McGarry, Fearghal (2015). The Abbey Rebels of 1916: A Lost Revolution. Gill & Macmillan. ISBN 9780717168811.
- Morris, Ewan (May 1998). "'God Save the King' Versus 'The Soldier's Song': The 1929 Trinity College National Anthem Dispute and the Politics of the Irish Free State". Irish Historical Studies. 31 (121): 72–90. doi:10.1017/S0021121400013705. JSTOR 30007063. S2CID 156107767.
- Mullaney-Dignam, Karol-Anne (January 2008). State, Nation and Music in Independent Ireland, 1922–51 (PhD thesis). Maynooth University. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- One Productions (2015). Amhrán na bhFiann. TG4. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Parfitt, Richard (2019). Musical Culture and the Spirit of Irish Nationalism, 1848–1972. Routledge. ISBN 9781000517637.
- Ryan, Joseph J. (August 1987). "Chapter V; The National Anthem" (PDF). The Army School of Music, 1922–1940: Its formation and evolution with a critical assessment of the compositions of its first director, Wilhelm Fritz Brase (M.A.). Vol. I. NUI Maynooth. pp. 167–174.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee (17 July 2018a). "Report on the Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem" (PDF). Oireachtas. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
- Seanad Public Consultation Committee (17 July 2018b). "Submissions on The Status, Treatment and Use of the National Anthem" (PDF). Oireachtas. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
- Sherry, Ruth (1998). "The Uses of the National Anthem". In Westarp, Karl-Heinz; Böss, Michael (eds.). Ireland: Towards New Identities?. The Dolphin. Vol. 29. Aarhus University Press. pp. 37–55. ISBN 9788772883809.
- Jane Lyons (30 January 2013). "Amhráin na bhFiann by Peadar Kearney". From-Ireland.net. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- Gaeilge na Sraithe Sóisearaí: Nótaí d'iar-bhunscoileanna Gaeltachta agus lán-Ghaeilge (PDF) (in Irish). An Chomhairle um Oideachas Gaeltachta agus Gaelscolaíochta. 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- "Ireland's Call". BBC Sport. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- Wood, Richard (24 May 2015). "Aoibhneas Na Bealtaine: concert programme" (PDF). Dundalk Institute of Technology. Retrieved 28 May 2023.
- National Anthem information from the Department of the Taoiseach
- The Lyric Feature — Ireland's National Anthems: from "God Save the King" to "The Soldier's Song" podcast from RTÉ lyric fm including nine versions of the anthem under various names