|Elevation||1,446 m (4,744 ft)|
|Last eruption||200 CE ± 150 years|
Snæfellsjökull (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈs(t)naiːˌfɛlsˌjœːkʏtl̥] ⓘ, snow-fell glacier) is a 700,000-year-old glacier-capped stratovolcano in western Iceland. It is situated on the westernmost part of the Snæfellsnes peninsula. Sometimes it may be seen from the city of Reykjavík over Faxa Bay, at a distance of 120 km (75 mi).
The mountain is one of the most famous sites of Iceland, primarily due to the novel Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864) by Jules Verne, in which the protagonists find the entrance to a passage leading to the center of the Earth on Snæfellsjökull.
The mountain is part of Snæfellsjökull National Park (Icelandic: Þjóðgarðurinn Snæfellsjökull).
Snæfellsjökull was visible from an extreme distance due to an arctic mirage on 17 July 1939. Captain Robert Bartlett of the Effie M. Morrissey sighted Snæfellsjökull from a position some 536 to 560 kilometres (289–302 nmi) distant.
The stratovolcano, which is the only large central volcano in its part of Iceland, has many pyroclastic cones on its flanks. Upper-flank craters produced intermediate to felsic materials, while lower-flank craters produced basaltic lava flows. Several holocene eruptions have originated from the summit crater and have produced felsic material. The latest eruption took place within 150 years of 200 CE and released approximately 0.11 km3 (144,000,000 cu yd) of volcanic material. The eruption was explosive and originated from the summit crater, and may have produced lava flows.
In summer, the saddle near the summit can be reached easily by walking, although the glacier's crevasses must be avoided. Several tour companies run regular guided walks during the season. To reach the true summit requires technical ice climbing.
Snæfellsjökull serves as the entrance to the subterranean journey in Jules Verne's classic science fiction novel, Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864). It is also featured in the 1960s Blind Birds trilogy by Czech SF writer Ludvík Souček, loosely inspired by Verne's work. While trying to discern whether Verne actually visited Iceland, a Czechoslovak-Icelandic science party discovers an ancient alien outpost in the cave system under Snæfellsjökull.
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- "Snaefellsjökull: General Information". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
- "Flash map of Snæfellsjökull". Þjóðgarðurinn Snæfellsjökull. Archived from the original on 2006-07-18.
- "Snæfellsjökull National Park". 2004-02-18. Archived from the original on 2004-06-05. Retrieved 2004-05-24.
- The Arctic Mirage: Aid To Discovery Visited 5 Aug 2021.
- "Haraldur Sigurðsson: Þúfurnar á Snæfellsjökli". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
- "Snaefellsjökull: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
- Rosi, Mauro; Luip, Luca; Papale, Paolo; Stoppato, Marco (2003). Volcanoes (A Firefly Guide). Firefly Books. pp. 130, 131. ISBN 978-1-55297-683-8.
- "traveleast.is". Archived from the original on 2016-12-03.
- The Ultimate Guide to Snaefellsnes Peninsula
- Cocker, Jarvis (October 27, 2014). "Lava and Ice". Wireless Nights with Jarvis Cocker. Archived from the original on February 13, 2015. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- Thordarson, Thor; Hoskuldsson, Armann (2002). Iceland (Classic Geology in Europe 3). Terra Publishing. pp. 208 pp. ISBN 1-903544-06-8.